通过改变设计可以把过失降到最低。该原则最初是用于工业管理的，但在交互设计也十分适用。如在硬件设计上的 USB 插槽；而在界面交互设计中也是可以经常看到，如当使用条件没有满足时，常常通过使功能失效来表示（一般按钮会变为灰色无法点击），以避免勿按。
渐进式呈现 （Progressive Disclosure）
Ant design 十大设计原则
- 亲密性 Proximity
- 对齐 Alignment
- 对比 Contrast
- 重复 Repetition
- 直截了当 Make it Direct
- 简化交互 Keep it Lightweight
- 足不出户 Stay on the Page
- 提供邀请 Provide Invitation
- 巧用过渡 Use Transition
- 即时反应 React Immediately
Don Normans Principles of Design
These principles are from Don Normans seminal book, The Design of Everyday Things.
- Visibility The more visible functions are, the more likely users will be able to know what to do next. In contrast, when functions are out of sight, it makes them more difficult to find and know how to use.
- Feedback Feedback is about sending back information about what action has been done and what has been accomplished, allowing the person to continue with the activity. Various kinds of feedback are available for interaction design-audio, tactile, verbal, and combinations of these.
- Constraints The design concept of constraining refers to determining ways of restricting the kind of user interaction that can take place at a given moment. There are various ways this can be achieved.
- Mapping This refers to the relationship between controls and their effects in the world. Nearly all artifacts need some kind of mapping between controls and effects, whether it is a flashlight, car, power plant, or cockpit. An example of a good mapping between control and effect is the up and down arrows used to represent the up and down movement of the cursor, respectively, on a computer keyboard.
- Consistency This refers to designing interfaces to have similar operations and use similar elements for achieving similar tasks. In particular, a consistent interface is one that follows rules, such as using the same operation to select all objects. For example, a consistent operation is using the same input action to highlight any graphical object at the interface, such as always clicking the left mouse button. Inconsistent interfaces, on the other hand, allow exceptions to a rule.
- Affordance A term used to refer to an attribute of an object that allows people to know how to use it. For example, a mouse button invites pushing (in so doing acting clicking) by the way it is physically constrained in its plastic shell. At a very simple level, to afford means to give a clue (Norman, 1988). When the affordances of a physical object are perceptually obvious it is easy to know how to interact with it.
37 Signals Principles
These are the principles that 37 signal (now known as Basecamp) built their wildly successful business on.
- Useful is forever Bells and whistles wear off, but usefulness never does. We build useful software that does just what you need and nothing you don’t.
- Great service is everything We’re famous for fast and friendly customer service. We work hard to make sure we live up to that reputation every day.
- Clarity is king Buzzwords, lingo, and sensationalized sales-and-marketing-speak have no place at 37signals. We communicate clearly and honestly.
- Our customers are our investors Our customers fund our daily operations by paying for our products. We answer to them — not investors, the stock market, or a board of directors.
- The basics are beautiful We’ll never overlook what really matters: The basics. Great service, ease of use, honest pricing, and respect for our customer’s time, money, and trust.
- No hidden fees or secret prices We believe everyone is entitled to the best price we can offer. Our prices are public, published right on our site, and the same no matter who you are.
- Software should be easy Our products are intuitive. You’ll pick them up in seconds or minutes, not hours, days or weeks. We don’t sell you training because you don’t need it.
- Long-term contracts are obscene No one likes being locked into something they don’t want anymore. Our customers can cancel at any time, no questions asked. No setup/termination fees either.
Laws of Simplicity
These are the 10 Laws of Simplicity as described in John Maeda’s book with the same name. They describe strategies to make things simpler and applies not only to design but to technology, business and life.
For a more in depth understanding of these design principles read The Laws of Simplicity.
- Reduce The simplest way to achieve simplicity is through thoughtful reduction.
- Organize Organization makes a system of many appear fewer.
- Time Saving in time feel like simplicity.
- Learn Knowledge makes everything simpler.
- Differences Simplicity and complexity need each other.
- Context What lies in the periphery of simplicity is definitely not peripheral.
- Emotion More emotions are better than less.
- Trust In simplicity trust.
- Failure Some things can never be made simple.
- The one Simplicity is about subtracting the obvious, and adding the meaningful.
Shneiderman’s “Eight Golden Rules of Interface Design
These Golden Rules of Interface Design are taken from the book, Designing the User Interface, which Ben Shneiderman co-authored. They were originally created in 1987 from the research Shneiderman did in Human Computer Interaction. They are applicable for most interactive systems.
These principles can help you create a well designed User Interface and thereby improve the usability of the system.
Strive for consistency Consistent sequences of actions should be required in similar situations; identical terminology should be used in prompts, menus, and help screens; and consistent commands should be employed throughout.
- Enable frequent users to use shortcuts As the frequency of use increases, so do the user’s desires to reduce the number of interactions and to increase the pace of interaction. Abbreviations, function keys, hidden commands, and macro facilities are very helpful to an expert user.
- Offer informative feedback. For every operator action, there should be some system feedback. For frequent and minor actions, the response can be modest, while for infrequent and major actions, the response should be more substantial.
- Design dialog to yield closure. Sequences of actions should be organized into groups with a beginning, middle, and end. The informative feedback at the completion of a group of actions gives the operators the satisfaction of accomplishment, a sense of relief, the signal to drop contingency plans and options from their minds, and an indication that the way is clear to prepare for the next group of actions.
- Offer simple error handling. As much as possible, design the system so the user cannot make a serious error. If an error is made, the system should be able to detect the error and offer simple, comprehensible mechanisms for handling the error.
- Permit easy reversal of actions This feature relieves anxiety, since the user knows that errors can be undone; it thus encourages exploration of unfamiliar options. The units of reversibility may be a single action, a data entry, or a complete group of actions.
- Support internal locus of control. Experienced operators strongly desire the sense that they are in charge of the system and that the system responds to their actions. Design the system to make users the initiators of actions rather than the responders.
- Reduce short-term memory load. The limitation of human information processing in short-term memory requires that displays be kept simple, multiple page displays be consolidated, window-motion frequency be reduced, and sufficient training time be allotted for codes, mnemonics, and sequences of actions.
Eight Principles of Information Architecture
Dan Brown, who’s a seasoned Information Architect, has laid out these eight principles as a foundation for approaching IA.
- Principle of objects Treat content as a living, breathing thing with a lifecycle, behaviors and attributes.
- Principle of choices Create pages that offer meaningful choices to users, keeping the range of choices available focused on a particular task.
- Principle of disclosure Show only enough information to help people understand what kinds of information they’ll find as they dig deeper.
- Principle of exemplars Describe the contents of categories by showing examples of the contents.
- Principle of front doors Assume at least half of the website’s visitors will come through some page other than the home page.
- Principle of multiple classification Offer users several different classification schemes to browse the site’s content.
- Principle of focused navigation The principle of focused navigation – Don’t mix apples and oranges in your navigation scheme.
- Principle of growth Assume the content you have today is a small fraction of the content you will have tomorrow.
Gerhardt-Powals’ cognitive engineering principles 原文
Although Nielsen is considered the expert and field leader in heuristic evaluation, Jill Gerhardt-Powals developed a set of cognitive engineering principles for enhancing human-computer performance. These heuristics, or principles, are similar to Nielsen’s heuristics but take a more holistic approach to evaluation. Gerhardt Powals’ principles are listed below.
- Automate unwanted workloadEliminate mental calculations, estimations, comparisons, and any unnecessary thinking, to free cognitive resources for high-level tasks.
- Reduce uncertaintyDisplay data in a manner that is clear and obvious to reduce decision time and error.
- Fuse dataBring together lower level data into a higher level summation to reduce cognitive load.
- Present new information with meaningful aids to interpretationNew information should be presented within familiar frameworks (e.g., schemas, metaphors, everyday terms) so that information is easier to absorb.
- Use names that are conceptually related to functionDisplay names and labels should be context-dependent, which will improve recall and recognition.
- Group data in consistently meaningful waysWithin a screen, data should be logically grouped; across screens, it should be consistently grouped. This will decrease information search time.
- Limit data-driven tasksUse color and graphics, for example, to reduce the time spent assimilating raw data.
- Include in the displays only that information needed by the user at a given timeExclude extraneous information that is not relevant to current tasks so that the user can focus attention on critical data.
- Provide multiple coding of data when appropriateThe system should provide data in varying formats and/or levels of detail in order to promote cognitive flexibility and satisfy user preferences.
- Practice judicious redundancyPrinciple 10 was devised by the first two authors to resolve the possible conflict between Principles 6 and 8, that is, in order to be consistent, it is sometimes necessary to include more information than may be needed at a given time.
Weinschenk & Barker 分类
Susan Weinschenk and Dean Barker created a categorization of heuristics and guidelines by several major providers into the following twenty types:
- User ControlThe interface will allow the user to perceive that they are in control and will allow appropriate control.
- Human LimitationsThe interface will not overload the user’s cognitive, visual, auditory, tactile, or motor limits.
- Modal IntegrityThe interface will fit individual tasks within whatever modality is being used: auditory, visual, or motor/kinesthetic.
- AccommodationThe interface will fit the way each user group works and thinks.
- Linguistic ClarityThe interface will communicate as efficiently as possible.
- Aesthetic IntegrityThe interface will have an attractive and appropriate design.
- SimplicityThe interface will present elements simply.
- PredictabilityThe interface will behave in a manner such that users can accurately predict what will happen next.
- InterpretationThe interface will make reasonable guesses about what the user is trying to do.
- AccuracyThe interface will be free from errors.
- Technical ClarityThe interface will have the highest possible fidelity.
- FlexibilityThe interface will allow the user to adjust the design for custom use.
- FulfillmentThe interface will provide a satisfying user experience.
- Cultural ProprietyThe interface will match the user’s social customs and expectations.
- Suitable TempoThe interface will operate at a tempo suitable to the user.
- ConsistencyThe interface will be consistent.
- User SupportThe interface will provide additional assistance as needed or requested.
- PrecisionThe interface will allow the users to perform a task exactly.
- ForgivenessThe interface will make actions recoverable.
- ResponsivenessThe interface will inform users about the results of their actions and the interface’s status.